# best equestrian dating site - Validity and accuracy of carbon dating

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The first observation that one can make from this formula is that it is the Hubble parameter that controls that age of the universe, with a correction arising from the matter and energy content.

So a rough estimate of the age of the universe comes from the Hubble time, the inverse of the Hubble parameter.

Though the universe might in theory have a longer history, the International Astronomical Union presently use "age of the universe" to mean the duration of the Lambda-CDM expansion, or equivalently the elapsed time since the Big Bang in the current observable universe.

Since the universe must be at least as old as the oldest thing in it, there are a number of observations which put a lower limit on the age of the universe; these include the temperature of the coolest white dwarfs, which gradually cool as they age, and the dimmest turnoff point of main sequence stars in clusters (lower-mass stars spend a greater amount of time on the main sequence, so the lowest-mass stars that have evolved off of the main sequence set a minimum age).

With a value for To get a more accurate number, the correction factor F must be computed.

In general this must be done numerically, and the results for a range of cosmological parameter values are shown in the figure.

For the Planck values (Ω) = (0.3086, 0.6914), shown by the box in the upper left corner of the figure, this correction factor is about F = 0.956.

For a flat universe without any cosmological constant, shown by the star in the lower right corner, F = is held constant (roughly equivalent to holding the CMB temperature constant) and the curvature density parameter is fixed by the value of the other three.

The light travel time to this surface (depending on the geometry used) yields a reliable age for the universe.

Assuming the validity of the models used to determine this age, the residual accuracy yields a margin of error near one percent.

Combining these measurements leads to the generally accepted value for the age of the universe quoted above.

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